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Research into the effects of radio frequency radiation (RFR) has been conducted for decades - ever since the development and deployment of radar by the military. Even early radar operators showed suspicious health effects from their occupational exposure. Much of the research conducted by the military has not been made known to the public.

May 12, 2003 - These two new articles by EMF researcher W. Ross Adey, M.D. were published in The Internal Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Third Volume, B. Smith and G. Adelman, editors.

March 2003 Fact Sheet entitled, "Studies on Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by Cellular Phones," from the National Toxicology Program/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NTP/NIEHS). The NTP is in the design phase of a number of studies to be conducted on Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR); this fact sheet describes the status of NTP research efforts.

In recent years with the proliferation of the wireless telecommunications industry and personal wireless devices (cell phones, digital phone, pagers, etc.) consumers have begun to demand answers to questions about their own exposures. We make available here comprehensive summaries of the research in this field.

1.  Elsevier's French journal entitled Pathologie Biologie has published the study by Roger Santini et al. on the health of people living near mobile phone base stations. It is the first published study looking at exposures from mobile phone base station antennas. This is the English translation of the complete study: "Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Influences of distance and sex."

A bibliography from Professor Roger Santini, researcher at the NationaI Institute of Applied Science in Lyon, France: " PUBLICATIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH OF PEOPLE LIVING IN VICINITY OF CELLULAR PHONE BASE STATIONS." He has compiled this list to counter assertions that no studies exist on this subject., that base station antenna radiation is too weak to affect those living near them, or that studies on this subject are impossible to carry out.

2.  See also the English translation of Professor Santini's testimony presented on March 6, 2002, to the French Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technology Alternatives. He testified at the request of Senators Jean-Louis Lorrain and Daniel Raoul. The presentation is entitled, "Arguments in Favor of Applying the Precautionary Principle to Counter the Effects of Mobile Phone Base Stations."

3.  This is the statement on the state of the science by the participants at the Vienna Conference.

4.  Dr. Henry Lai, Ph.D., lead research for several decades at the Bioelectromagnetics Research Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. He presented this paper at: The IBC-UK Conference: "Mobile Phones-Is there a Health Risk?" September 16-17, 1997 in Brussels, Belgium. (This is a PDF document.)
Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Relating to Wireless Communication Technology

5.  Dr. Henry Lai presented this paper at the 1998 Vienna Conference: the "Workshop on Possible Biological and Health Effects of RF Electromagnetic Fields", Mobile Phone and Health Symposium, Oct 25-28, 1998, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. (This is a PDF document.) Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

6.  Dr. Henry Lai presented this paper at the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) conference:
"The Biological Effects, Health Consequences and Standards for Pulsed Radiofrequency Field", an international seminar sponsored by the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection and World Health Organization, at the Ettoll Majorare, Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily, Italy, November 21-25, 1999. (This is a PDF document.)
Memory and Behavior

7.  Dr. Henry Lai's most recent summary of current research. This includes studies funded by industry and non-industry sources. 80% of these studies demonstrate some kind of biological effect.(This is a large PDF document.)Recent studies (1995-2000) on the biological effects of radiofrequency and cell phone radiation.

8.  NeuroReport - Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG: NeuroReport Volume 11, number 15, 3321-3325.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the electromagnetic field emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. The main effect was the enhancement of the intensity of certain frequencies of the brain's electrical signals (i.e. electroencephalogram, EEG) in the first 30 minutes of non-REM sleep.

9.  Environment Contaminated by Microwaves - Dr. Wolfgang Volkrodt: "Our environment is contaminated by microwaves. At present, the consequences are largely unexplored; however, observations of trees offer dire foreboding."

The following pdf files offer an introduction and selection of Dr. Volkrodt's research and supporting documents:

The extensive use of mobile phones has given rise to public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. A recent report of the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones established by the British government summarized the relevant studies on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). They proposed that a precautionary approach be adopted until more robust scientific information becomes available. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that exposure to EMF during sleep reduced waking after sleep onset and affected the EEG in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep.

In this present study, the authors investigated the effect of exposure to pulsed high-frequency EMF during waking on subsequent sleep. Fields similar to those emitted by mobile communications equipment of GSM type (global system for mobile communication) were applied. To simulate the real-life exposure conditions, the subjects were exposed on either side of the head. The EMF was directed to either the right or left side of the head for 30 min. The subsequent sleep episode was analyzed. As in a previous study, in which mechanical stimulation of the right hand had been shown to induce unilateral changes in the sleep EEG, the authors anticipated hemispheric differences.

Exposure to EMF affected neither the sleep stages, nor were significant effects of EMF exposure observed for subjective assessment of waking after sleep onset, sleep latency, and sleep quality.

The main effect of EMF exposure was the enhancement of the intensity of the brain's electrical signals (EEG power density) in the frequency range of 9.750 - 11.25 Hz and in the 12.25 - 13.25 Hz in the first 30 minutes of non-REM sleep. This effect was also present when the left and right exposure were analyzed separately. The two sides of the brain were similarly affected after left and right exposure. A comparison within individuals showed that the spectral spindle peak frequency in the 10 - 15 Hz range was not shifted by left and right exposure. The REM sleep spectrum was not significantly affected.

In this study the authors have shown for the first time that exposure to EMF during waking affects the EEG during subsequent sleep. In the authors' previous study, the EMF was directed towards the top of the head to expose both sides of the brain. In the present experiment, the field was aimed at one side or the other. Contrary to the authors' expectation, the change in the brain's electrical signal intensity was similar for both sides of the head.

The present results lend support to previous reports on effects of EMF on physiological and psychological variables. These include sleep and cognitive function as well as blood pressure and heart rate. However, the present study is unique in having confirmed previous results of an experiment performed under similar conditions on the effect on sleep. The other findings still need to be replicated or could not be reproduced.

This study demonstrates that a short exposure to an electromagnetic field similar to those emitted by mobile phones has an effect on brain physiology. Conclusions about possible adverse effects on human health are premature because the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Further studies are needed to determine the time course of the changes, to specify field strength - response relationships, and to define the critical field parameters (e.g. modulation, frequency).

This paper and accompanying In Focus article by a journal editor is for a short period freely available on-line on this site. To obtain a faxed pre-publication copy of this paper please contact:
Dr Phil J. Daly or Mr Ian Burgess
NeuroReport Editorial Office
Tel: +44-(0)20-7940-7500 (switchboard), -7521 (PJD), or -7518 (IB)
Fax: +44-(0)20-7940-7515


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